Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of few-layer stanene on InSb (1 1 1)
Stanene has been theoretically predicted to be a 2D topological insulator with a large band gap, potentially hosting quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature. Here, few-layer stanene films have been epitaxially grown on Sb-terminated InSb (1 1 1) surface and their structural and electrical properties are characterized. Scanning tunneling spectrum results reveal a large bulk bandgap in single-layer stanene (over 0.2 eV). Moreover, spectroscopy evidence for a filled edge state near the steps was observed. The gap decreases dramatically with increasing number of layers, and multilayer stanene should become a Dirac semimetal in the bulk limit. The changeover may involve nontrivial topological phase transitions. Clear and reproducible Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations were observed on the single-layer stanene films that were exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time, showing the possibility for device experiments using nanofabrication and magneto-transport. Our results demonstrate that the single-layer stanene is a promising topological material for exploring fundamental physics and quantum applications.
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